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自考英语(二)考试重点小结
发布时间:2019-07-11
 

1.主谓一致的三条原则

(1)语法一致,即在语法形式上取得一致。

Human beings enjoy learning.

Everybody’s understanding is incomplete.

(2)意义一致,即根据意义来处理一致关系。

The people there are fighting for the independence of their country.

Ten dollars was a lot of money at that time.

(3)就近原则,即谓语动词的单、复数形式取决于最靠近它的词语。

There is a pen,two pencils and an eraser in the pencil box.

Neither the boy nor his teachers know the answer.


2.集体名词作主语时与动词的一致

(1)当主语为furniture,equipment,machinery等词时,谓语动词通常用单数。

The furniture in that shop is all made in China.

Office equipment is very expensive nowadays.

(2)集体名词如people,cattle,police,poultry等往往作复数用。

Some people drive madly in this country.

Many cattle have died because of the flood.

(3)family,government,class,committee,audience,team,public等词被视作一个整体时,其后的动词用单数;被视为构成整体的个体时,其后的动词则为复数。

His family is a happy one.

His family are all interested in stampcollecting


3.并列主语与动词的一致

(1)当“名词+名词”表示一种事物时,用单数形式。

Bacon and eggs is a very popular British breakfast.

(2)当主语是由and,both...and连接的并列结构时,如果主语所指的不是一种事物,动词则用复数形式。

Jack and Mary are in love with each other.

Both Tom and John are absent today.

(3)在由or 或 nor 连接的并列结构中,动词单、复数形式一般与or 或 nor 后面的名词或代词保持一致。

He or his brothers are to blame for this.

Neither she nor you are mistaken.

(4)not only...but also 连接的结构作主语时,动词的单、复数形式依据 but also 后的名词或代词。

Not only Fred but also his parents love this small pet dog.

Not only the boys but also their mother is very ill.

SubjectVerb Agreement(Ⅱ)


4.带确定数量词的名词词组作主语时的主谓一致

(1)当主语是表示数目、时间、重量、距离等的复数名词时,如果该名词所表示的数量看作一个整体,其后的动词用单数。

Four years is too long for me to wait.

Sixty miles is a short run in a car.

(2)当主语是表示数目、时间、重量、距离等的复数名词时,如该名词所表示的数量看作单个个体,其后的动词用复数。

The past three weeks were the hardest time in his life.

Hundreds of buildings were put up in the city last year.

(3)当主语为“分数或百分数+of+名词”时,其后的动词形式依照of后名词的单复数形式来定。

Thirty percent of the oil in that country is imported.

Ten percent of the eggs have gone bad.

(4)当主语为sheep,fish,deer,aircraft,means,steelworks等单数与复数同形的词时,动词的形式以名词单、复数意义为准。

Three aircraft are reported missing.

Ten fish have been caught today.


5.all的主谓一致

(1)代词all表示可数的人或物时,其后的动词用复数形式。

All were hungry and desperate(渴望)for food.

All who have seen the film love it.

(2)代词all表示不可数的名词时,其后的动词用单数。

All is going well.(一切顺利。)

All is quiet in the middle of the night.

(3)形容词all+可数名词时,其后的动词用复数形式。

All roads lead to Rome.(条条道路通罗马。)

All things are difficult when we begin to do them.

(4)形容词all+不可数名词时,其后的动词用单数形式。

All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.

Not all food is good to eat.6.带none的词组作主语时,其后面的动词单数或复数形式都可用。

None of you have / has had my experience.

None of the hotels are / is ready for guests yet.

NounPronoun Agreement

NounPossessive Case Agreement


附加疑问句有下列几种形式:

(1)肯定陈述句+否定附加成分(附加成分除极为正式场合或老式英语中都要用缩略形式)

You sure get to see things differently,don’t you?

You’ve heard the news,haven’t you?

(2)否定的陈述句+肯定附加成分

Peter doesn’t smoke,does he?

The party won’t start until seven,will it?

10.附加疑问句的几点特殊用法(1)凡是带有no,none,no one,nobody,nothing,hardly,seldom,rarely,never,barely,few,little,neither等否定词的陈述句,都应看作否定陈述句,后面接肯定附加成分。

She seldom leaves the room in winter,does she?

People rarely go that far to that small village,do they?(2)当陈述句的主语everybody,everyone,someone,somebody,anyone,nobody,no one,neither,none时,附加成分中的代词一般用they。

Everyone at the party had a good time,didn’t they?

Neither of them said a word,did they?

(3)陈述部分是there引导的存在句时,附加成分由助动词或be的一种形式+there构成。

There is something wrong with the child,isn’t there?

There is nobody in the room,is there?

(4)陈述部分是肯定的I’m...结构时,附加成分为aren’t I。

I’m the doctor ,aren’t I?

I’m late,aren’t I?

(在老式或极为正式的英语中用:I am late,am I not?)

(5)陈述部分是一个带有that从句作宾语的主从结构时,附加成分应与主句的主语和谓语动词保持对应关系。

You think(that) I did it,don’t you?

He didn’t say Mary would come,did he?

注意:当陈述部分的主句是I think,I suppose,I believe等时,附加成分往往与that从句中的主语和谓语动词保持对应关系,但要注意I don’t think等结构对从句的否定用法。

I suppose you are here to study,aren’t you?

I don’t think he came here just to say goodbye,did he?

I believe you are in urgent need of help,aren’t you?

如果想核实对方的看法是否与你一致,附加部分则与主句相应。

I think he’s the best person for the job,don’t you?

(6)在祈使句后加一个附加疑问成分可缓和语气,附加成分一般用will you和would you,但也可用won’t you或can’t you。

Open the window,would you?

Give me a hand,won’t you?

(7)Let’s 型祈使句中附加成分用shall we。

Let’s go for a walk,shall we?

Let’s get down to work,shall we?

(8)陈述部分带有used to时,附加成分用did形式,偶尔用used to形式。

He used to smoke fifty cigarettes a day ,didn’t he?

有的语法书将used not缩略式定为usedn’t to,这是老式的用法,现在很少有人使用。


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